Priesthill (Zion) Methodist

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The flowers are springing up,
the season of singing birds
has come;
Song of Solomon 2v12

How to use this glossary: Each word has two definitions.
The first is a very simple word equivalent, just a phrase or a few words. The second is a more detailed explanation with examples.

Glossary Terms - J

James, son of Alphaeus
One of the Twelve Apostles, called St. James the Less or St. James the Little.
James the son of Alpheus, one of the twelve apostles. (Matthew 10:3) Whether or not this James is to be identified with James the Less, the son of Alphaeus, the brother of our Lord, is one of the most difficult questions in the gospel history.
[Apostles, Twelve]  [James, Son of Zebedee

James, Son of Zebedee
(New Testament) disciple of Jesus; brother of John; author of the Epistle of James in the New Testament
One of the Twelve Apostles, called St. James the Greater. He was the son of Zebedee and the brother of St. John; these brothers were the Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder.

He preached in Spain and was martyred on his return to Judea by Herod Agrippa I.
[Apostles, Twelve]  [James, son of Alphaeus

Jargon (or inspeak)
Is a special set of words or phrases understood by a particular group.
[Christianese

Jehovah
Sacred name for the Lord which the Jews pronounce as Adonai
A transliteration from the Hebrew word for God. Literally in Hebrew YHWH had no vowels. This way the name of God would not be pronounced and thereby further revered. When we refer to Jehovah, we do so to differentiate between the one true God and other false gods. This word is translated "Lord" in the Bible.
[Adonai]  [Bible]  [I Am Who I Am]  [Yahweh(YHWH)

Jeremiah
A prophet who lived around 600 BC. There is a book in the Old Testament named after him in which Jeremiah tried to reform the life of the Jews and spoke of the individual's relationship with God. He also warned of the Babylonian invasion.
Jeremiah (626-586 B.C.) "yeremi yauw" (Yaweh will lift up).

He prophesied to Judah and against the surrounding nations. He emphasised the folly of idolatry as God pleaded with His people :
Jer 2:5-7
He continually warned that Jerusalem would be captured and the inhabitants exiled to Babylon.
Jer 5:15; 19:3

He prophesied against the pagan nations around (Jer 46-51) and also foretold that after 70 years the Jews would return from Babylon:

Jeremiah's words were vehemently rejected and he was heavily persecuted. After the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C Jeremiah was forced to live in Egypt. He prophesied much of the Messiah and His kingdom. His greatest prophecy was probably Jer 31:31-34
[New Covenant

Jericho
A village in Jordan near the north end of the Dead Sea; in the Old Testament it was the first place taken by the Israelites under Joshua as the entered the Promised Land
Ancient Palestinian city near the Dead Sea. Known from Biblical story from the book of Joshua, whose armies captured the city by marching around it seven times and blowing trumpets until the fortified walls of Jericho fell down.
[Canaan]  [Joshua]  [Promised Land]  [Shofar

Jerusalem
"Jireh-Salem" means God "provides at Salem."

The capital of Israel since it was taken from the Jebusites by King David (2 Samuel 5:6-10)

The city is situated on an uneven rocky plateau(ie. two mountains, viz., Zion and Moriah) at an elevation of 2,550 feet. It is 3,800 feet above the level of the Dead Sea. It is poetically called "beautiful in elevation, the joy of the whole earth" (Ps 48:2). Its location has helped to give it prestige.

The city is split into two parts, the "upper" and the "lower city." Jerusalem is a "mountain city enthroned on a mountain fastness" (comp. Ps. 68:15, 16; 87:1; 125:2; 76:1, 2; 122:3).

Jerusalem stands at a point where three steep-sided little wadis join to form one valley. They are the Kidron, Tyropoeon, and Hinnom valleys. The Kidron runs N and S and lies on the E of the city. Between it and the Tyropoeon Valley (also N-S) a long, narrow spur extends southward; on this stood the Jebusite town conquered by David. Then a western hill (now known as Zion) stands between the Tyropoeon and the Hinnom, which runs N and S and then curves in an easterly direction to join the other two valleys. To the E of the Kidron rises the Mount of Olives.
The most important city in Israel. In Bible times, Jerusalem was the capital and also the place where the temple of God was built. Jerusalem is sometimes called "Zion," "City of David" or "City of God."
2 Samuel 5-6
Psalm 122
Jeremiah 4:5-31
Joel 3:17-21
Zechariah 8
Jesus cried about Jerusalem because the people did not know he was the Messiah.
Luke 13:31-35
Luke 19:28-44
In the future, God will show us a New Jerusalem.
Revelation 21:1-22:6
[Jew(s)]  [Messiah]  [Palestine]  [Zion

Jesuit
A member of the a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534, technically known as the Society of Jesus.
The Society of Jesus, commonly known as the Jesuits, was founded in 1534 by a group of University of Paris graduate students led by Iņ igo Lopez de Loyola, known more commonly by the Latin version of his name, Ignatius of Loyola.
[Catholic Roman

Jesus
The Son of God, Jesus, who was sent to save all people by dying on a cross.

Became fully human to save us from everlasting death. Both completely God and completely man. We know He was fully man because He died on the cross. We know He was fully God because He rose from the grave. He conquered sin and death for us.
A Greek name that means "saviour." Jesus is a form of the Hebrew name "Joshua" that means "the LORD saves." When the Son of God was born as a human being, he was named Jesus. This is because he came to save his people from their sins.
Matthew I
Luke 1:26-38
Isaiah 53
Jesus is one of the three persons of God.
John 1:1-18
Philippians 2:1-11
Colossians 1:15-20
Jesus is also a real human person.
Hebrews 2:10-18
Hebrews 4:14-15
Jesus will come to earth again to bring salvation to those who are waiting for him.
Hebrews 9:27-28
Revelation 22:12-21
[Cross]  [God]  [Miracle]  [Parable]  [Perichoresis]  [Saviour]  [Trinity

Jew(s)
At first, this was a name for someone from the tribe of Judah. Later it came to be used for anyone who was from the family of Jacob (Israel).
Esther 2
Zechariah 8:23
Romans 10:11-13
Galatians 3:26-29
The people of Abraham. Jesus was a Jew.

from Greek Ioudaios, someone from Judea or "Judah." Later used of anyone descended from Israel. In modern usage, according to halakhah, one is a Jew if one has Jewish parents (at least a Jewish mother), or has undergone conversion in accordance with Jewish law.
[Abraham]  [Circumcise]  [Jesus]  [Zionism

Jewish feasts
Judaism celebrates nine major feasts:
- Passover during the month of Nisan (sometime in March or April);
- Unleavened Bread, Nisan;
- Firstfruits, Nisan or Sivan (May-June);
- Pentecost (sometimes called Harvest or Wheats), in Sivan;
- Trumpets, also known as Rosh Hashanah, in Tishri (Sept.-Oct.);
- the Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur, in Tishri;
- Tabernacles, also known as Booths or Ingathering, in Tishri;
- Dedication or Feast of Lights also known as Hanukkah, in Chislev (Nov.-Dec.);
- and Purim or Lots, in Adar (Feb.-Mar.).

In ancient Israel, all males were required to travel to the Temple in Jerusalem for the feasts of Unleavened Bread, Pentecost, and Tabernacles.
[Atonement, Day of]  [Feast of Lots, Purim]  [Feast of Tabernacles]  [Festival of Lights, Hanukka(h)]  [Passover]  [Pentecost]  [Pesach]  [Rosh Hashanah]  [Tradition

Jihad
Arabic term for "holy war." Militant Muslims believe they are engaged in a holy war that pits right against wrong, justice against injustice, and Allah against Satan. They engage in jihad in order to usher in khilafa, the state that will unite all Muslims.
[Allah]  [Muslim/Moslem

Job
Is the central figure of the Old Testament book which bears his name. This book is the story of Job's suffering, the lessons God taught him from it and his ultimate salvation.
A book of the Hebrew Scriptures, usually associated with the "Wisdom" literature and believed by many to be the oldest writing in the Hebrew canon. The book tells the story of Job, a wealthy agricultural baron who loses everything but remains faithful to his God, despite being advised by his "comforters" to "curse God and die." The book contains some of the most dramatic language of the Scriptures.
[God]  [Old Testament]  [Salvation

John (Apostle)
(New Testament)
one of the twelve apostles and brother of James, son of Zebedee. Traditionally said to be the author of the 4th Gospel and three epistles, bearing his name, and the book of Revelation
[Disciple

John (the Baptist)
John the Baptist was Jesus' cousin.

He prepared people for Jesus' ministry by saying they needed to turn away from their sins and receive God's forgiveness. He preached in the desert in Judea, and many people came a long way to confess their sins and to be baptised in the river Jordan.
A great prophet who lived from around 4 BC to around 30 AD. He was a forerunner of Jesus and prepared the way for Him. He urged people to repent of their sins and baptised them in the River Jordan.

Was thrown into prison because he spoke out against the marriage of Herod Antipas with Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip.

Herod was afraid of John, but Herodias bated him, so he had him executed and his head brought to her on a meat plate.
[Herod Antipas]  [Herodias]  [Jesus]  [Jordan River]  [Prophet]  [Salome]  [Zechariah(NT)

John 3:16
John 3:16 is one of the most widely quoted verses from the Christian Bible. It has been called the "Bible in a nutshell", because it briefly summarises the Christian faith.

The verse is as follows:
For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. (KJV)

The phrase "John 3:16" is very short and can be written in large letters on small signs. As a result, some Christians have intentionally displayed the phrase at sporting events (such as football games) so it might be televised.
[Bible verse]  [Born Again

Jonah
The prophet in the O.T. sent by God to preach to the Assyrians in Ninevah. Known for his trip in the belly of the sea monster.
The book in the Old Testament named after him tells how God called Jonah to prophesy to the people of Nineveh. It was written about 400 BC.
[Nineveh]  [OT]  [Prophet

Jordan River
Is the biggest river in Israel, mentioned many times in the bible.
A river running through the rift valley between Israel and Jordan from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea. John the Baptist baptised those who believed his call to repentance, as well as Jesus, in the Jordan River.
[Baptism]  [John (the Baptist)]  [Sea of Galilee

Joseph (NT)
(New Testament) husband of Mary and (in Christian belief) the foster father of Jesus
The foster-father of our Lord (Matt. 1:16; Luke 3:23). He lived at Nazareth in Galilee (Luke 2:4). He is called a "just man." He was by trade a carpenter (Matt. 13:55). He is last mentioned in connection with the journey to Jerusalem, when Jesus was twelve years old. It is probable that he died before Jesus entered on his
public ministry. This is concluded from the fact that Mary only was present at
the marriage feast in Cana of Galilee. His name does not appear in connection
with the scenes of the crucifixion along with that of Mary (q.v.), John 19:25.
[Jesus]  [Mary mother of Jesus

Joseph (OT)
Hebrew word meaning "increaser"
(old Testament) the eleventh son of Jacob and one of the twelve patriarchs of Israel
Jacob's eleventh son, the first of Jacob and his second wife, Rachel:
Jacob gave Joseph a coat of many colours, which made his brothers jealous and they sold him into slavery in Egypt
Gen. 30:22- 24; 37.
[Israel (Jacob)]  [Tribes of Israel

Joshua
A leader of the people of Israel. Joshua led the Israelites into the land God had promised them. Numbers 13-14
Numbers 27:12-23
Joshua 1-11
Joshua 23-24
Is the first book of the prophets in the Hebrew Bible named after its hero and sometimes assumed author. Joshua was an assistant to Moses, chosen to lead the Israelites into the promised land (and many violent battles) after Moses' death. The most famous story from the book of Joshua is the Israelites' conquest of the ancient fortified city of Jericho.
[Jericho]  [Moses]  [Promised Land

Judah
Name of a region of Palestine, the so-called Southern Kingdom of the divided ancient holy land. Also the name of the fourth son of Jacob (also called Israel). Much of the story of the Hebrew Scriptures focuses on the tribe and land of Judah.
One of the sons of Jacob, and father of one of the tribes of Israel.
Genesis 49:8- 12
The tribe of Judah was the main one in the southern part of the nation of Israel. When the nation split into two parts, the southern part was called Judah.
1 Kings 12:1-24
2 Kings 24:18-25:21
Zechariah 12:1-9
Jesus was born from the tribe of Judah.
Revelation 5:5
[Tribes of Israel

Judah (Kingdom of)
In the reign of Rehoboam the dominions of Solomon were broken up into two separate kingdoms, mainly in consequence of the jealousy between the tribes of Ephraim and Judah. The southern kingdom included the tribe of Judah and the greater part of Benjamin, and had Jerusalem as its capital.

On the whole it remained more faithful to the worship of Jehovah than the northern kingdom; it was less exposed to attack from the north and east, and the supreme power remained in the hands of the family of David until the Exile. It consequently managed to exist for 135 years after the downfall of the more populous and more powerful kingdom of Israel.
In the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah son of Jacob (Israel). The name Judah itself is derived from Y(e)huda meaning Praise of God.

Judah is often referred to as the Southern Kingdom to distinguish it from the Northern Kingdom (being the Kingdom of Israel) after the division of the Kingdom. Its capital was Jerusalem. See History of ancient Israel and Judah.

When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Joshua 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah.

For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between them. For the following eighty years there was no open war between them. For the most part they were in friendly alliance, co-operating against their common enemies, especially against Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a somewhat checkered existence after the termination of the kingdom of Israel till its final overthrow in the destruction of the temple (586 BC) by Nebuzaradan, who was captain of Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21).

The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of 8,900 kmē (3,435 square miles).
[Israel (Kingdom of)]  [Israel, Excile

Judaism
The religious system of the Jewish people, centred on the belief in One God and his Covenant with the Jewish people as described in the Torah..
The religion of the Jews as recorded in the Torah and the Hebrew books of history and the prophets. Judaism developed a monotheistic religion with a God of compassion, justice and mercy. It traces its covenantal relationship with the living God to Abraham and through Moses, Israel, David and others to modern Jewish religion.
[Abraham]  [Covenant]  [Jew(s)]  [Monotheism]  [Torah

Judas Iscariot
(Gk. 'Ioudas, from Heb. Judas; 'Iskariotes, "inhabitant of Kerioth").
the apostle who betrayed Jesus. He was the treasurer (money-keeper) of the apostles.
The disciple who betrayed Jesus for 30 silver pieces by identifying Jesus to his would-be captors with a kiss. When Judas learned that as a consequence of this betrayal Jesus had been condemned to death, Judas, full of remorse, returned the 30 silver pieces and killed himself.
[Apostle]  [Holy Week]  [Jesus

Judea
Generally speaking, all of Palestine, but more specifically, the region around Jerusalem.
[Jerusalem]  [Palestine

Judeo-Christian
Refers to concepts and values held in common by Christianity and Judaism.

Christianity emerged from Judaism in the first century of the common era.
Of or pertaining to the religious writings, beliefs, values, or traditions held in common by Judaism and Christianity.
[CE]  [Christianity]  [Judaism]  [Monotheism

Justification
The process of being made good or perfect. To be justified is to be right. Jesus makes us right with God. And this cannot be accomplished by works (good deeds). Romans 5:1, Galatians 2:16
In the doctrine of salvation, the declaration that the person has been restored to a state of righteousness in God's sight. (The Westminster Shorter Catechism [WSC] asks in question 33, "What is justification?" The answer given is "Justification is an act of God's free grace, wherein He pardoneth all our sins, and accepteth us as righteous in His sight, only for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us, and received by faith alone."
This is an excellent statement which correctly presents the biblical data.)
(Romans 3:24-30, 1Cr 6:11)
[Born Again]  [Calvin]  [Jesus]  [Justify]  [Sanctify

Justify
Refers to the justice accomplished by God so that we can receive the love of God in spite of our debt of love to him. Christ pays the debt for us, if we receive Christ. Through Christ I am justified, "just-as-if- I'd" never sinned. (Note that "justify" usually refers to the part God has played in this vs. how we respond. For our part see Sanctify.)
To make a person right with God. To justify is to say that someone's sins will not be ' held against him. The followers of Jesus are justified because Jesus died and rose again for them.
Luke 18:9- 14
Romans 3:21-31
Romans 4:25
Galatians 2:15-16
[Born Again]  [Sanctify]  [Sin, Sinner