Priesthill (Zion) Methodist

“centred in Christ, caring for people”

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The flowers are springing up,
the season of singing birds
has come;
Song of Solomon 2v12

How to use this glossary: Each word has two definitions.
The first is a very simple word equivalent, just a phrase or a few words. The second is a more detailed explanation with examples.

Glossary Terms - I

I Am Who I Am
The first part of the formula by which God identified Himself to Moses on Mount Sinai: "I am who I am" = Yahweh or, as the name appears m the King James Version, "Jehovah." (See Ex. 3:14). Thus Jesus answered the Jews (in John 8:58): "Before Abraham was, I AM
What is the name of God?

According to the Bible, Moses, at Mount Sinai, spoke with God. He asked God what His name is so that he would be able to tell the Israelites.

God's reply is in Exodus 3:14-15: "I am who I am. This is what you must say to them: 'The one who is called I AM has sent me to you.' Tell the Israelites that I, the Lord, the God of their ancestors, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, have sent you to them. This is my name forever; this is what all future generations are to call me."

Jesus also said "I Am Who I Am". In John 8:24 He says, "That is why I told you that you will die in your sins. And you will die in your sins if you do not believe that 'I Am Who I Am'."

Again in John 8:28 He says, "So he said to them, "When you lift up the Son of Man, you will know that 'I Am Who I Am': then you will know that I do nothing on my own authority, but I say only what the Father has instructed me to say."

A third reference is made in John 13:19 where He says, "I tell you this now before it happens; so that when it does happen, you will believe that 'I Am Who I Am.'
[Jehovah]  [Yahweh(YHWH)

Icthus (Fish Symbol)
The fish was an early Christian symbol. Persecuted Christians in Roman times originally used the sign of the fish to identify one another. The greek word for fish, ichthys, is made up of the initial letters of the words in the phrase "Jesus Christ, God's Son, Saviour".
Greek: ichthus --> "fish"

from the 2nd century the fish was used as a symbol of Christ, and the word in its Greek form, us also an acronym formed from the initial letters of "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour".

It is found on many seals, rins, urns and tombstones of the early christian period.
[Jesus]  [Saviour

Idiom
The usage or vocabulary that is characteristic of a specific group of people
An idiom is an expression whose meaning does not seem to follow logically from the combination of the meaning of its parts and the "rules of language"; the term could be defined as a language oddity.

For example, in English, a person may be said to be "under the weather" (meaning temporarily unwell), even though this has nothing to do with weather or being literally "under" anything. Idioms are often, though perhaps not universally, classified as figures of speech.

Virtually all idioms are peculiar to their own language (or even dialect; such as with Cockney rhyming slang), although some have passed in translation from one language into another: "Get lost!" (meaning "Go away!" or "Stop bothering me!") is said to be a direct translation from Yiddish. This language specificity makes idioms almost universally frustrating for non-native language users.
[Glory of the Lord

Idol/idolatry
A statue or image of a deity treated as an object of worship.
"A phantom appearance." Not just an old false pagan god such as Baal, but anything in life that can compete for your number one love: money, career, even a ministry (if not submitted to God). There is no substitute for loving God!
Image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21-25: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).

The forms of idolatry are,
(1.) Fetishism, or the worship of trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc.

(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as the supposed powers of nature.

(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of heroes.

In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate covetousness (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5)
[Cult]  [God]  [Golden Calf]  [Worship

Imago Dei
(Lat. "Image of God") Mankind was created in the image and likeness of God (Gen. 1:26-27).

Though tarnished by the fall, mankind reflects the image of God in the following respects: personality, rationality, volition, and spirituality.
("image of God"): A theological term, applied uniquely to humans, which denotes the symbolical relation between God and humanity. The term has its roots in Genesis 1:27, wherein "God created man in his own image. . ." This scriptural passage does not mean that God is in human form, but rather, that humans are in the image of God in their moral, spiritual, and intellectual nature. Thus, humans mirror God's divinity in their ability to actualise the unique qualities with which they have been endowed, and which make them different than all other creatures: rational structure (see logos), complete centeredness, creative freedom, a possibility for self-actualisation, and the ability for self-transcendence.
[Adam and Eve]  [Creation]  [Genesis]  [God

Immaculate conception
The belief that before the birth of Mary (the mother of Jesus) was born, she was preserved from original sin at the time of her conception.
It is widely but incorrectly believed to refer to Jesus' conception.
The conception of the Virgin Mary in which as decreed in Roman Catholic dogma her soul was preserved free from original sin by divine grace

Immaculate Conception was defined by Pope Pius IX in his constitution Ineffabilis Deus, published December 8, 1854 (the Feast of the Immaculate Conception).

The doctrine is generally not shared by either Eastern Orthodoxy or by Protestantism, though for different reasons.
[Catholic Roman]  [Dogma]  [Eastern Orthodox]  [Mary mother of Jesus]  [Pope]  [Protestant]  [Virgin Birth

Immanuel
A compound Hebrew word meaning: "With Us is God (El)"; conveying the idea of incarnation. A title of Jesus Christ. (Emmanuel is an old English spelling.) [Is 7:14, Mt 1:23, Lk 1:31-34]
God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14 and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew (1:23).
[Christmas]  [Emmanuel]  [Evangelist]  [Prophecy

Immortal
Perpetual; having unlimited existence.
A living being that will live forever. Note the technical difference between eternalness and immortality: God is eternal because had He had no beginning. He also is immortal because He will live forever. Humans, angels, demons, etc., are immortal because we will never cease to exist, but not eternal because we did not always exist.

It is important to realise that in practice eternal and immortal are often used interchangeably and the technical difference is not always maintained
[Eternal]  [God]  [Mortal

Imputation
The attribution or transfer of one person's sin or righteousness to another.
Is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus
in doctrinal language
(1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty;
(2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so
attributed to them as to be considered their own;
(3) our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our "law-place," undertook to answer the demands of justice for our sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same (Rom. 5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).
[Christ]  [Forgive/Forgiveness]  [Original Sin]  [Sin, Sinner

Incarnation
(to take on bodily form) Jesus Christ became fully human by being born in the flesh. He did not stop being fully God. He is both fully God and fully human.
John 1:14
That act whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb. 2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed or confounded, and it is perpetual.
[Christmas]  [Jesus

Incense
Resin from tree, or something that is burnt and has aromatic smell, is used during certain Christian rituals.
A collection of spices that is burned to worship God. Incense produces a sweet smell.
Exodus 30:1-10
Matthew 2:7-12
The Bible teaches that the prayers of God's people are like incense to him.
Psalm 141:1-2
Revelation 8:1-5
[Ritual]  [Worship

Indulgence
A letter of indulgence grants forgiveness for all or some of the buyer's sins, in return for payment and in principle conditional on repentance
A term used by the Roman Catholic church to describe a remission of temporal punishment due to sins.

In the Middle Ages, indulgences were frequently sold, and the teaching on indulgences was often distorted. The sale of indulgences by the church was the one of the first issues refuted by Martin Luther which inadvertently brought about reformation.
[95 Theses, The]  [Martin Luther]  [Reformation

Inerrancy
Freedom from error or untruths; infallibility: belief in the inerrancy of the Scriptures.
Literally, "without error."
In its strongest form, a reference to the Bible being completely trustworthy in all matters in which it speaks (including matters of faith, practice, history, and science). The belief that the Bible, as a consequence of its divine inspiration, contains no contradictions or errors in its original autographs.

The Bible is without error or contradiction in the original manuscripts because it is inspired, or God-breathed. It is therefore the sole authority for all matters of faith and conduct. (2 Timothy 3:16- 17)
[Bible

Infinite
Without boundaries, limitations, or an end.
[L. infinitus; in and finitus, terminated.]
Without limits; unbounded; boundless; not circumscribed; applied to time, space and qualities.

God is infinite in duration, having neither beginning nor end of existence. He is also infinite in presence, or omnipresent, and his perfection's are infinite.
[finite]  [God

Infusionism
The doctrine that the soul is pre-existent to the body, and is infused into it at conception or birth; -- opposed to tradicianism and creationism.
[Creationism]  [Tradicianism

Iniquity
[Middle English iniquite, from Old French, from Latin inquits, from inquus, unjust, harmful : in-, not; see in-1 + aequus, equal.]
absence of moral or spiritual values
[Sin, Sinner

INRI
Abbr. Latin Iesus Nazarenus Rex Iudaeorum (Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews).
Initial letters of the superscription affixed to the cross of Christ by order of Pontious Pilate: "Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Iudaerum" --> 'Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews' (John 19:19) It was written in Greek, Latin and Hebrew.
[Crucify, Crucifixion]  [Superscription

Inspired, inspiration - plenary
A term which means originated of God or God breathed. They are the very words of God, though transmitted through human writers, their personalities and writing styles. Because the Bible is inspired, it is inerrant, and therefore authoritative.
"All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness" (2 Tim. 3:16).
Biblically speaking, the process by which God moved the biblical writers to produce the scriptural books. This divine supervision removed the possibility of human error, but allowed the personality and style of the various writers to be reflected. Thus the Scriptures are theopneustos "God-breathed" (2 Tim. 3:16).
[Authoritative]  [Bible

Intercede
The act of interceding; mediation; interposition between parties at variance, with a view to reconciliation; prayer, petition, or entreaty in favour of, or (less often) against, another or others.
But the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which can not be uttered. --Rom. viii. 26.
To go between two groups or people who are against each other, and preventing one from harming the other. To plead on behalf of another before a judge or king.

An advocate, or defence lawyer. Romans 8:34, Hebrews 7:25

An activity of Christ in which he advocates to God the Father in favour of saved individuals
[Advocate]  [Mediator

interdenominational
Of or involving different religious denominations.
[Denomination]  [Ecumenical

Interpretation
A way of understanding or explaining a passage of writing or a concept.
[Exegesis]  [Exposition]  [Hermeneutics]  [Higher Criticism

Isaac
Son of Abraham and Sarah, whose name means "laughter", used to test his father's faith. He married Rebekah and was the father of Jacob and Esau.
[Abraham]  [Faith

Isaiah
A prophet who lived about 700 BC. In the Old Testament book which bears his name, there are prophecies foretelling Jesus' coming.
Isaiah (745-695 B.C.) "yesha yahu" (Yaweh is salvation).

Isaiah lived in Jerusalem at the time Judah was threatened by the Assyrians. He warned Jerusalem about idolatry and foreign alliances, although he was usually scoffed at. He spoke about the miraculous deliverance of Jerusalem from the Assyrians. He also spoke of the destruction and captivity of Jerusalem by the Babylonians as well as the release of the Jews by Cyrus the Persian. Jewish tradition records that the leaders in Jerusalem sawed the prophet Isaiah in half between two planks.

Isaiah says more about the ministry of the Messiah than any other Book in the Old Testament.

Isa 53:4-6
Surely He has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed Him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. But He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities; the chastisement for our peace was upon Him, and by His stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned, every one, to his own way; and the LORD has laid on Him the iniquity of us all.

He also describes in great detail the blessings of the future age of peace.

Isa 11:6-10
"The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, the leopard shall lie down with the young goat, the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. . .The nursing child shall play by the cobra's hole, and the weaned child shall put his hand in the viper's den. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD as the waters cover the sea. "And in that day there shall be a Root of Jesse, who shall stand as a banner to the people; for the Gentiles shall seek Him, and His resting place shall be glorious."
[Idol/idolatry]  [Jerusalem]  [Messiah]  [OT]  [Prophet

Ishmael
Son of Abraham and Hagar, Sarah's handmaiden..
[Abraham

Islam
The monotheistic religion of Muslims based on the Koran/Quran.

Muslims believe that Mohammed was the last and major prophet of God
Is an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion founded in the 7th century based on the religious text known as the Quran. According to Islam, the religion was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad when Allah sent an angel to dictate a series of revelations to him, which Muhammad memorised.
[Koran, Quran]  [Mohammed/Muhammad]  [Muslim/Moslem]  [Shiite]  [Sunni

Israel (Jacob)
Son of Isaac; brother of Esau; father of the twelve patriarchs of Israel; Jacob wrestled with God and forced God to bless him, so God gave Jacob the new name of Israel (meaning `one who has been strong against God')
Son of Isaac, grandson of Abraham. Jacob was the father of the 12 tribes of Israel.
Genesis 25:19-35:29
Genesis 46:1-50:14
Hebrews 11:20-21
He was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterprising hunter. His dealing with Esau, however, showed much mean selfishness and cunning (Gen. 25:29- 34).
After a confrontation with God, Jacob's name is changed to Israel and he becomes the father of God's chosen people.
[Abraham]  [Isaac]  [Israel, People Of]  [Shepherd]  [Tribes of Israel

Israel (Kingdom of)
An ancient kingdom of the Hebrew tribes at the southeastern end of the Mediterranean Sea; founded by Saul around 1025 BC and destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC
[Israel, Excile]  [Judah (Kingdom of)]  [Saul (OT)

Israel, Excile
Israel had been scattered in two different scatterings, the northern kindom of Israel (Ephraim) around 720bc. and the southern kingdom (Judah) during the prophet Daniels time.
After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah."

destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC

After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.
[Diaspora]  [Israel (Kingdom of)]  [Judah (Kingdom of)

Israel, Lost Tribes
Ten tribes that were relocated to Assyria after the conquest of Israel in 72 B.C. Although their ultimate fate is unknown, the tribes have been identified with various peoples of Arabia and other areas of the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Japan, and England.
In Biblical Israel, the tribes were collectively Hebrews and organised into a northern and a southern kingdom. In 722 BC the Assyrians conquered the northern Kingdom of Israel Bnai Israel and sent it into exile. Many Israelites from the northern Kingdom of Israel fled to the southern Kingdom of Judah , and likewise portions of Judah went with Israel.

In 586 BC (this date is according to some secular historians only, as rabbinical scholars have a later date) the nation of Judah was conquered by Babylon. About 50 years later, in 537 BC the Persians (who conquered Babylon 2 years before) allowed Jews to move back to Jerusalem. By the end of this era, members of the tribes seem to have abandoned their individual identities.

Today's Jews are mostly descended from the Hebrews of the Kingdom of Judah. Note that over time people joined the Jews via conversion, and married with the descendants of the Judaic Hebrews. The number of converts is unknown, but not so large as to swamp out the original Jewish people. It is thus fair to say that Jews today are descendants of those Hebrews who lived in the Southern Kingdom of Judah, along with some converts who joined Judaism.
[Diaspora]  [Israel (Kingdom of)]  [Israel, Excile]  [Judah (Kingdom of)

Israel, Nation of
The modern nation of Israel was founded in 1948, carved out of a U.N. protectorate of the Holy Land and given immediate diplomatic recognition by the United States.
[Israel (Jacob)

Israel, People Of
The twelve tribes descended from Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel. In the Bible they are referred to as "the children of Israel" or simply as "Israel." During the Divided Monarchy (924-721 BC), the name referred to the Northern Kingdom; the second kingdom was called Judah. destroyed by the Assyrians in 721 BC
This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Josh. 3:17; 7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Ex. 16:31; 40:38).

This name Israel is sometimes used emphatically for the true Israel (Ps. 73:1: Isa. 45:17; 49:3; John 1:47; Rom. 9:6; 11:26).

After the death of Saul the ten tribes arrogated to themselves this name, as if they were the whole nation (2 Sam. 2:9, 10, 17, 28; 3:10, 17; 19:40-43), and the kings of the ten tribes were called "kings of Israel," while the kings of the two tribes were called "kings of Judah."

After the Exile the name Israel was assumed as designating the entire nation.
[David]  [Judah]  [Tribes of Israel

Israelite
A person belonging to the world-wide group claiming descent from Jacob (or converted to it) and connected by cultural or religious ties
To the Bible, the Israelites were the descendants of the children of Jacob, later known as Israel. His twelve male children were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Gad, Napthali, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. Twelve tribes of Israel are listed in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible, Old Testament).
[Israel (Jacob)]  [Tribes of Israel