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The flowers are springing up,
the season of singing birds
has come;
Song of Solomon 2v12

How to use this glossary: Each word has two definitions.
The first is a very simple word equivalent, just a phrase or a few words. The second is a more detailed explanation with examples.

Glossary Terms - C

Caiaphas
In the New Testament, the Jewish high priest of the Jews who presided over the assembly that condemned Jesus to death. Matt. 26.
Caiaphas was the high priest of the Jews in the reign of Tiberius Caesar, at the beginning of the Lord's public ministry (Lk 3:2) and also at the time of His crucifixion (Mt. 26:3,57; etc.).

A Sadducee, son-in-law of Annas. According to the Gospels, he presided at the council that condemned Jesus to death. Later, he joined in the examination of Peter and John. Mat. 26.57-68; John 11.47-54; 18.24; Acts 4.6.
[Crucify, Crucifixion]  [Gospel]  [John (Apostle)]  [Peter (Apostle)]  [Sadducees

Cain
The eldest son of Adam and Eve, who killed his brother Abel (Genesis 4)
The eldest son of Adam and Eve, and the first man born in creation according to the Genesis stories common to the Jewish, Christian and Muslim religions.

He was a tiller of the land while his younger brother Abel was a shepherd. In jealousy he killed his brother Abel and became a fugitive.
[Adam and Eve]  [Commandment(s)

Calendar
There are three Principal Calendars:

The Gregorian calendar is now in use as the civil calendar throughout most of the world - operates on a "solar" calendar.
The Jewish calendar is the official calendar of the Jewish religious community - operates on a "lunar" calendar.
The Islamic calendar is the official calendar in many Muslim countries - operates on a "lunar" calendar.
[Calendar, Gregorian]  [Calendar, Islam]  [Calendar, Jewish

Calendar, Gregorian
The solar calendar in use throughout most of the world, sponsored by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582 as a corrected version of the Julian calendar.
The calendar as reformed by Pope Gregory XIII. in 1582, including the method of adjusting the leap years so as to harmonise the civil year with the solar, and also the regulation of the time of Easter and the movable feasts by means of epochs.

Providing that only centenary years divisible by 400 should be leap years, ie.
Thus, every year, of the current reckoning, which is divisible by 4, except those divisible by 100 and not by 400, has 366 days; all other years have 365 days.

Introduced to correct an error in the Julian calendar by suppressing 10 days, making Oct 5 be called Oct 15.

Adopted by Great Britain and the American colonies in 1752.
[Calendar]  [Calendar, Islam]  [Calendar, Jewish]  [Ecclesiastical Calendar

Calendar, Islam
The lunar calendar used by Muslims, reckoned from the year of the Hegira in a.d. 622. A calendar of 12 lunar months, each beginning with the new moon, organised in cycles of 30 years.
The Islamic calendar is "lunar," based on the relationship of earth and moon (354 days in a year). Thus every 100 solar years are equal to about 103 lunar years.

Muslim calendric observances include fasting during the month of Ramadan, followed by the feast of fast breaking (id al-fitr), and the time for pilgrimage to Mecca (hajj) and associated practices such as the Feast of Sacrifice.

Of all the months in the Islamic calendar, Ramadan is the most sacred, and all Muslims are required to fast during the daytime.

The Islamic months are named as follows:
Muharram ul Haram (or shortened to Muharram)
Safar
Rabi-ul-Awwal
Rab-ul-Akhir (or Raby` al-THaany)
Jamadi-ul-Awwal
Jamadi-ul-Akhir (or Jumaada al-THaany)
Rajab
Sha'aban
Ramadhan
Shawwal
Dhul Qadah
Dhul Hijja

Extremely important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:

1 MuHarram (Islamic new year)
27 Rajab (Isra & Miraj)
1 RamaDHaan (first day of fasting)
17 RamaDHan (Nuzul Al-Qur'an)
Last 10 days of RamaDHaan which include Laylatu al-Qadar
1 SHawwal (`iyd al-fiTr)
8-10 Thw al-Hijjah (the Hajj to Makkah)
10 Thw al-Hijjah (`iyd al-'aDHHaa').
[Calendar]  [Muslim/Moslem

Calendar, Jewish
The Hebrew calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. It is based upon both the lunar cycle (which defines months) and the solar cycle (which defines years) thus "lunisolar." .

This is in contrast to the Gregorian calendar, which is based solely upon the solar cycle.
Judaism follows a lunar calendar adjusted every three years or so to the solar cycle (by adding a second 12th month).

The oldest Jewish annual observances are Passover/pesah, Shevuot, Yom Kippur and Sukkot; other ancient celebrations include Rosh ha-shana, Simhat Torah, Hannukah and Purim.

Months
Nissan (Mar - Apr) 30 days
Lyar (Apr - May) 29 days
Sivan (May - Jun) 30 days
Tammuz (Jun - Jul) 29 days
Av (Jul - Aug) 30 days
Elul (Aug - Sep) 29 days
Tishri (Sep - Oct) 30 days


Cheshvan (Oct - Nov) 30 days
Kislev (Nov - Dec) 29 days
Tevet (Dec - Jan) 29 days
Shevat (Jan - Feb) 30 days
Adar (Feb - Mar) 30 days
   Observances
Pesach 15-22

shavuoth 6-7



rosh hashanah 1-2
yom kippur 10
succoth 15-19
chanukah 10-17



Purim 14-15

Every 2 to 3 years, there is a 13th month added, called Adar II with 29 or 30 days
Normal years (12 months) have either 354 or 355 days
Leap years (13 months) have either 383, 284 or 385 days
[Calendar]  [Jewish feasts]  [Judaism

Call/Calling
Refers primarily to the work of God's Spirit by which people are brought to salvation. The general call is issued whenever the gospel is preached. By itself, because of the hardness of man's hearts, this will not result in salvation. The effectual call is issued by the Holy Spirit to the elect, enabling them to understand the gospel, believe and be saved. (Romans 8:28)
Used another way, we are called to ministry, Christian service and the vocations [callings] in which we work.
[Vocation

Calvary/Calvery
The place near Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified, (Luke 23.33). Derived from the Latin word meaning skull,
Calvary is the site of the crucifixion of Jesus. The word derives from the translation of word calvaria in the Latin Vulgate. Calvary was known in the New Testament as Golgotha which means "Place of the Skull" (Matt. 27:33). It was located outside the city of Jerusalem.
[Golgotha

Calvin
Swiss theologian (born in France) whose tenets (predestination and the irresistibility of grace and justification by faith) defined Presbyterianism (1509-1564)
(July 10, 1509 - May 27, 1564)
Born in 1509 in northern France, John Calvin was the greatest systematic theologian of the Reformation. His teaching is the basis of the Reformed churches.

He was born Jean Chauvin in Noyon, Picardie, France; French was his mother tongue. Martin Luther wrote his 95 Theses, in 1517, when Calvin was 8.

After King Francis I launched a vigorous assault against critics of the Roman Catholic Church, Calvin moved to Switzerland. Much as he would have liked to spend his time in study, he was persuaded to minister to Protestant congregations in Strasbourg and Geneva. Among his many literary works are commentaries on books of the Bible.
[Calvinism]  [Catholic Roman]  [Justification]  [Martin Luther]  [Predestination]  [Protestant]  [tenet

Calvinism
John Calvin (1509-1564) was an important part of the Reformation and his followers started a movement called Calvinism, a branch of the Protestant church.
A theological position that understands that God is the Author and Finisher of man's salvation. A helpful way to remember some of Calvinism's cardinal beliefs is to remember the acronym TULIP: Total Depravity; Unconditional Election; Limited (or particular) Atonement; Irresistible Grace; and Perseverance of the Saints.
[Calvin]  [Protestant]  [Reformation]  [Salvation]  [T-U-L-I-P

Canaan
Ancient name for Palestine, which was conquered by the Israelites under Moses and Joshua and believed by them to be "the promised land." Its occupants, known as Canaanites, were probably related to the Amorites of the ancient world.
The land God promised to give to Israel. Canaan is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea where Asia, Europe and Africa come together.
Genesis 17:1-8
Joshua 21:43-45
Psalm 105:8- 11
[Exodus]  [Israel, People Of]  [Moses]  [Promised Land

Canon of Scripture
The collection of books that have been historically considered to be authoritative and included in the Bible. The word literally refers to a "rule" or a "standard."
A fixed list of books or other works deemed authoritative in a particular community. In Biblical Studies, "the canon" usually means the Bible, but the Jewish canon is different from the Christian canon (e.g. the Christian canon includes the New Testament and the Jewish canon does not), and within the Christian community the Protestant canon is different from the Catholic canon (Catholic Bibles include some books not found in Protestant Bibles).
[Apocrypha]  [Bible]  [King James]  [Torah]  [Vulgate

Canticle
[L. canticulum a little song, dim. of canticum song, fr. cantus a singing, fr. coner to sing.]
A song or chant, especially a nonmetrical hymn with words taken from a biblical text other than from the Book of Psalms.
A canticle is a hymn (strictly excluding the Psalms) taken from the Bible. Examples of Biblical canticles:
Benedictus or Canticle of Zechariah (Luke 1:68-79)
Magnificat or Song of the Blessed Virgin Mary (Luke I:46-55)
Nunc dimittis (Luke 2:25-35)

From the Latin "canticulum", a diminutive of "canticum", song.
[Gloria in excelsis]  [Liturgy]  [Nunc Dimittis

Capitalism
An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods, characterised by a free competitive market and motivation by profit
Economic system based on private ownership of the means of production, in which personal profit can be acquired through investment of capital and employment of labour. Capitalism is grounded in the concept of free enterprise, which argues that government intervention in the economy should be restricted and that a free market, based on supply and demand, will ultimately maximise consumer welfare.
[Communism]  [Mammon]  [socialism

Carillon
Set of bells hung in a bell tower
A set of church bells; generally found only in churches large enough to have a tower or steeple strong enough to support the weight of the many bells; some of the bells may weigh a ton or more.
[Church

Carnal
Middle English, from Old North French or Late Latin; Old North French, from Late Latin carnalis, from Latin carn-, caro flesh;

Of or pertaining to the body or is appetites; animal; fleshly; sensual; given to sensual indulgence; lustful; human or worldly as opposed to spiritual.

For ye are yet carnal. 1 Cor. 3v3.
Unconverted men are so called (1 Cor. 3:3). They are represented as of a "carnal
mind, which is enmity against God" (Rom. 8:6, 7). Enjoyments that minister to
the wants and desires of man's animal nature are so called (Rom. 15:27; 1 Cor.
9:11). The ceremonial of the Mosaic law is spoken of as "carnal," because it
related to things outward, the bodies of men and of animals, and the
purification of the flesh (Heb. 7:16; 9:10). The weapons of Christian warfare
are "not carnal", that is, they are not of man's device, nor are wielded by
human power (2 Cor. 10:4).
[Flesh

Cassock
An black garment reaching down to the ankles; worn by priests or choristers
A long garment with sleeves, normally black, worn over street clothes when one serves at the altar. It buttons in the front, and should be long enough to cover the ankles. Worn by lay readers, vergers, chalice bearers (and others "serving" during a worship service), and priests; bishops' cassocks are usually purple.
[Priest

Catechetics
From the Greek meaning "to sound forth", it is the procedure for teaching religion, ie. instructing by questions and answers.
Is basic instruction in the doctrines of the faith. In the fourth century, catechetical instruction was given to the newly-baptised. Most mainline church today associate such instruction with the process of confirmation.
[Confirmation

Catechism
A popular manual of Christian doctrine, usually in the form of question and answer, intended for religious instruction.
The catechism (found in the Book of Common Prayer) is primarily intended for use by parish priests, deacons, and lay catechists, to give an outline for instruction. It is a commentary on the creeds, but is not meant to be a complete statement of belief and practice; rather, it is a point of departure for the teacher, and it is cast in the traditional question and answer form for ease of reference; a second use of this catechism is to provide a brief summary of the Church's teaching for an inquiring stranger who picks up a Prayer Book.
[Book of Common Prayer]  [Creed]  [Doctrine

Catholic
The word simply means "universal".
[Catholic Roman]  [Christian Denomination

Catholic Roman
The Christian denomination, based in Rome, that is headed by the Pope.
A name introduced by non-Catholics for members of the Catholic or Western Church under the jurisdiction of the Pope. The term is a consequence of the Reformation and came into use about the end of the 16th century.
[Catholic]  [Christian Denomination]  [Holy Water]  [Jesuit]  [Reformation

Causality, Principle of
(in philosophy) the relationship between cause and effect. The principle that all events have sufficient causes.
Every effect must have a sufficient cause; everything that comes into being must have a cause.

Ex Nihil Nihil Fit: (Lat. phrase) Literally, "from nothing, nothing comes." A principle of causality.
[Philosophy

CE
"common era"; an attempt to use a neutral term for the period traditionally labelled "AD" ( anno domini or "year of the Lord") by Christians. Thus 1992 CE is identical to AD 1992.
The Common Era refers to the conventional numbering of years (in the Julian and Gregorian calendars) from an epoch based on the traditionally reckoned year of the birth of Jesus Christ.
This convention for year numbering was introduced by the christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in 525 CE, although it was not widely used until later.
[AD]  [Anno Domini]  [BC]  [BCE

Cephas
A Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon (John 1:42), meaning "rock." The
Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by Petrus
Means "rock" in Aramaic. The apostle Simon was called Cephas by Jesus because he was to be the rock upon which the Christian church was to be built. In most versions of the New Testament Cephas is translated into Greek Peter.
[Peter (Apostle)

Chanukah
Jewish festival commemorating the rededication of the temple in Jerusalem. This temple served as a temple to Zeus from 168 BCE to 165 BCE. When Judas Maccabeus recaptured the temple, it had to be cleansed. In this process, lasting 8 days, burning oil was central. But only one cup of olive oil could be found. Even if this was far from being enough to burn the whole 8 days, it did through a miracle.
Chanukah takes place during 8 days in the month Kislev. This festival coincides with Christian Christmas, which characterises its present day shape. In large parts of the world, the celebration resembles Christmas with gifts given to the children. Every day through the 8 days of Chanukah a candle is burned in an 8- armed candelabrum.
[Feast of Dedication]  [Menorah

Charismatic
From the Greek word for "gift"; it does not refer to joyful or emotional worship, but the presence of certain miraculous manifestations. Those who emphasise these gifts to an extreme are pentecostal.
From Greek charis grace or gift. A divinely bestowed talent or power.

A set of terms especially associated with the gifts of the Holy Spirit. In medieval theology, the term "charisma" is used to designate a spiritual gift, conferred upon individuals by the grace of God.

Since the early twentieth century, the term "charismatic" has come to refer to styles of theology and worship which place particular emphasis upon the immediate presence and experience of the Holy Spirit.
[Gifts of the Holy Spirit]  [Holy Spirit]  [Pentecostal]  [Slain in the Spirit

Cherub/Cherubim
An angel of the second order whose gift is knowledge; usually portrayed as a winged child
Cherubim are mentioned several times in the Tanach, or Old Testament, and are alluded to in the Book of Revelation. They are described as angelic creatures and in medieval Catholic theology are considered to be a certain rank of angels--one of the highest ranks, along with seraphim.
I knew that they were the cherubim. --Ezek. x. 20.

He rode upon a cherub and did fly. --Ps. xviii. 10.
[Angel

Christ
Another name for Jesus Christ.

From "Christos," the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew term "Messiah." Both words literally mean "Anointed One" This was the word used in the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures as prepared by Jewish translators three centuries before the time of Jesus. When early Christians believed they had found their Messiah, they naturally referred to him as "the Christ." When Christians say "Jesus Christ" they are actually saying "Jesus the Messiah."
Is a title. It is the N.T. equivalent of the O.T. term "messiah" and means "anointed one." It is applied to Jesus as the anointed one who delivers from sin. Jesus alone is the Christ. As the Christ He has three offices: Prophet, Priest, and King. As Prophet He is the mouthpiece of God (Matt. 5:27-28) and represents God to man. As Priest He represents man to God and restores fellowship between them by offering Himself as the sacrifice that removed the sin of those saved. As King He rules over His kingdom. By virtue of Christ creating all things (John 1:3; Col. 1:16-17), He has the right to rule.
Christ has come to do the will of the Father (John 6:38), to save sinners (Luke 19:10), to fulfil the O.T. (Matt. 5:17), to destroy the works of Satan (Heb. 2:14; 1 John 3:8), and to give life (John 10:10,28). Christ is holy (Luke 1:35), righteous (Isaiah 53:11), sinless (2 Cor. 5:21), humble (Phil. 2:5-8), and forgiving (Luke 5:20; 7:48; 23:34).
[Jesus]  [Messiah]  [Septuagint

Christening
Another word for Baptism.
[Baptism, Infant

Christian Denomination
Broadly speaking, the Christian religion consists of three distinct groups of believers:
Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Protestant.

The first schism occurred in 1054 when the Orthodox and the Roman Catholic church split with each other over doctrinal issues.
Later during the Reformation, Protestants broke off from the Roman Catholic church.
[Catholic Roman]  [Denomination]  [Orthodox]  [Protestant]  [Schism

Christian(s)
A follower of Christ. According to the Bible Christians were first so called at Antioch (Acts 11:26).
The word "Christian" comes from the Greek word christianos which is derived from the word christos, or Christ, which means "anointed one." A Christian, then, is someone who is a follower of Christ. The first use of the word "Christian" in the Bible is found in Acts 11:26, "And the disciples were called Christians first in Antioch." It is found only twice more in Acts 26:28 and 1 Pet. 4:16. However, it is important to note that it is the true Christ that makes someone a Christian, not the Mormon one (brother of the devil), or the JW one (Michael the Archangel), the New Age Jesus (a man in tune with the divine Christ Consciousness), etc. The true Christ is God in flesh (John 1:1,14; 20:28; Col. 2:9; Phil. 2:5-8; Heb. 1:8): Jesus.
[Antioch]  [Bible]  [Christ]  [Christianity

Christianese
Noun. A language or linguistic style that is understood only by, or appeals only to, practising Christians.

"Unless you speak intelligible words with your tongue, how will anyone know what you are saying?" I Cor 14:9
The collection of words/clichés pregnant with deep meaning for those immersed in the Christian culture which are meaningless gibberish for those who speak English.
[Christian(s)]  [Jargon (or inspeak)

Christianity
The faith of the Christians.
Is the largest of the four great religions of humankind with more than 1 billion followers world-wide. It is based on the teachings of Jesus Christ who lived in the Holy Land 2,000 years ago.

Christianity began as a sect of Judaism that saw in Jesus of Nazareth the fulfilment of Hebrew prophesies that God would send a Messiah. Christians worship Jesus as God, claiming that through his sacrificial death he carried the burden of sin for all humans and through his triumph over death in his resurrection, an event celebrated at Easter, he demonstrated his divine power and love and assured that believers also will be resurrected from death.

One who believes in Jesus Christ as Messiah, saviour and Son of God is called a Christian.
[Antioch

Christmas
The festival which celebrates the birth of Jesus.
Literally, Christ's mass. A Christian celebration on December 25 of the birth of Jesus in a manger in Bethlehem. Christians believe that in this event God entered into human form, an event referred to as the Incarnation. Most Christians acknowledge the date of December 25 is a convenient calendar date for celebration and not an accurate representation of the day on which Jesus was born. It is from this event that the Gregorian calendar takes its distinctions of B.C. and A.D.
[Anno Domini]  [BC]  [Herald]  [Immanuel]  [Liturgical Year]  [Nativity]  [swaddle(ing)]  [Xmas

Christmas, Twelve days of
The time from December 25th to January 6th, that is from Christmas day to Epiphany. The time from the first Sunday in Advent until Christmas Eve is, properly, Advent; the time from December 25th to January 6th is the Christmas season or the "Twelve Days of Christmas."
[Advent]  [Christmas

Church
(From the Greek ekklesia, "an assembly") Originally used to indicate a local congregation of Christians, never a building, although in popular modern usage it often indicates a building or place used for the worship of God.
A group of the followers of Jesus that meets in a certain place. Jesus calls the church his body. Most of the books of the New Testament are letters to churches.
Matthew 18:15-20
Acts 11:19- 26
Romans 12:3-8
1 Corinthians 12:12-31
Colossians 1:15-20
[Christian Denomination]  [Congregation]  [God]  [NT]  [Tradition]  [Worship

Church Year
The church's calendar, which developed over centuries, provides a yearly rehearsal of the life and teaching of Christ.
The first half begins with Advent and continues with Christmas, Epiphany, Lent, Easter, Ascension, and Pentecost.
The second half of the year (Sundays after Pentecost/Trinity) focuses on the ministry of Christ, concluding with an emphasis on the End Times.
[Advent]  [Holiday]  [Lectionary

Circumcise
(from Latin, to cut around). The minor surgical removal of the skin covering the tip of the penis. In Judaism, it is ritually performed when a boy is eight days old in a ceremony called brit milah, which indicates that the ritual establishes a covenant between God and the individual.
To remove the foreskin of the male sex organ. This was done to symbolise the removal of evil.
It was a sign of the covenant God made with Abraham / the people of Israel.
Genesis 17:9-14
Romans 2:25-29
Colossians 2:9-13
[Covenant]  [Jew(s)

City of David
Jerusalem is sometimes called "City of David"
Jerusalem. So called in compliment to King David (2 Sam 5:7-9)
[Jerusalem

Clergy
The group of ordained ministers of a church or denomination; all ministers together as distinguished from lay persons.
The body of ordained men (and in some churches women) in a church, permitted to perform the priestly and/or pastoral duties, as distinct from the laity to whom they minister.
[Church]  [Lay People/Laity]  [Minister]  [Synod

Codex
A bound book made up of folded leaves or pages. Codices gradually replaced scrolls as the medium for written transmission of the Bible and other ancient texts.
A forerunner of the modern book. It was made by folding several sheets of papyrus in the middle and sewing them together along the fold. A codex was written on both sides.
[Manuscript]  [Scroll

Collar, clerical
A stiff white collar in the shape of a band fastened at the back of the neck, worn by certain members of the Christian clergy.
A stiff round shirt collar worn by Episcopal, Orthodox, Catholic and some Methodist, Presbyterian, Lutheran and other clergy; widely regarded as a sign or identifying mark of clerical status.
[Clergy]  [Lutheran

Commandment(s)
A rule or teaching that people should obey. God gives his people commandments to help them live a good life.
Proverbs 2:1-15
Matthew 22:34-40
Rules given by God.

The most famous are the 10 commandments given to Moses. The moral commands or laws given by God to Moses on Mt. Sinai. The first three are regarding the love and true worship of God and the remaining seven are regarding love and justice to our neighbour.
1) "I am the Lord thy God, you shall not have strange gods before Me"
2) "You shall not take the Name of the Lord, thy God, in vain"
3) "Remember to keep holy the Sabbath day"
4) "Honour your father and your mother"
5) "You shall not kill"
6) "You shall not commit adultery"
7) "You shall not steal"
8) "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbour"
9) "You shall not covet your neighbour's wife"
10) "You shall not covet your neighbour's goods"

The Two Great Commandments - encompasses The Ten Commandments, but are broken down into Two Great Commandments given by Jesus Christ, Himself - Mark 12:29-31
First - The Lord thy God is one God. Thou shalt love the Lord thy God, with thy whole heart, and with thy whole soul, and with thy whole mind and with thy whole strength
Second - Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.
[Adultery]  [Decalogue]  [God]  [Moses]  [Sabbath]  [Sinai

Communion
A name by which the Lord's Supper is called.
The sharing of bread and wine (grape juice) to remember the death and sacrifice of Jesus. The bread represents His body and the wine His blood. [1 Corinthians 11:23-26]
It acts out the events of the last supper which Jesus had with his disciples.
[Confirmation]  [Eucharist]  [Last/Lord's Supper]  [Pax Domini

Communism
A form of socialism that abolishes private ownership
[F. communisme, fr. commun common.] A scheme of equalising the social conditions of life; specifically, a scheme which contemplates the abolition of inequalities in the possession of property, as by distributing all wealth equally to all, or by holding all wealth in common for the equal use and advantage of all.

Note: At different times, and in different countries, various schemes pertaining to socialism in government and the conditions of domestic life, as well as in the distribution of wealth, have been called communism.
[Capitalism]  [socialism

Condemnation
The ground or reason of condemning.

This is the condemnation, that light is come into the world, and men loved darkness rather light, because their deeds were evil. --John iii. 19.
Declaring an evildoer to be guilty; the punishment inflicted. Without Jesus we stand condemned before God not only because of the sin of Adam (Rom. 5:16-18) but also because of our own sin (Matt. 12:37). However, "There is therefore now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death" (Rom. 8:1-2). Christians have passed out of condemnation because they are forgiven in Christ.
[Adam and Eve]  [Fall, The]  [God]  [Original Sin

Confess
To agree with God regarding sin. True confession is more than an admission of guilt; it requires repentance to be genuine. (1 John 1:9)
Is used in two major ways in the Bible. The first type of confession is the confession or admission of sin. The second kind of confession is the confession of faith. This is where the Christian declares his or her faith, usually publicly, or declares his or her faith as a part of witnessing.
[Christian(s)]  [Repent, Repentance]  [Witness

Confession
Words spoken about your sins, asking God for forgiveness.

The act of disclosing one's sins. Biblically, confession of sins is done to the one offended.
[Forgive/Forgiveness

Confirmation
A sacrament admitting a baptised person to full participation in the church
(Lat. confirmatio, from confirmare, to establish, make firm)
a rite administered to baptised persons, in some churches as a sacrament for confirming and strengthening the recipient in the Christian faith, in others as a rite without sacramental character by which the recipient is admitted to full communion with the church.

Before a person can be confirmed they have to undergo a period of study and preparation with their church minister.

Scriptural passages cited as authority for confirmation include Acts 8.14-17; 19.
[Catechetics]  [sacrament

Congregation
A gathering of people, usually of believers, in a common religious faith.
An assembly of Christians who meet together regularly for worship of God. From several Hebrew words meaning "assembly," "those gathered together," and "solemn assembly."
[Church]  [Faith]  [Worship

Congregationalism
The system of government and religious beliefs of a Protestant denomination in which each member church is self-governing.
Is a form of church government in which every local congregation is independent. The Anabaptist movement, Baptists, and the Congregationalist churches are organised according to it. In Christianity, it is distinguished from Presbyterian government, and Episcopalian government.
[Church]  [Presbyterianism]  [Protestant

Conscience
Our internal 'voice' which tells us right from wrong, some people believe that this is the voice of God within us.
French, from Latin conscientia knowledge within oneself, from con together/with + scire to know/knowledge. "with knowledge"

that faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is common to all men. Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall (John 16:2; Acts 26:9; Rom. 2:15). It is spoken of as "defiled" (Titus 1:15), and "seared" (1 Tim. 4:2). A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated (Acts 24:16; Rom. 9:1; 2 Cor. 1:12; 1 Tim. 1:5, 19; 1 Pet. 3:21).
[Conviction

Consecrate
[L. consceratus, p. p. of conscerare to conscerate; con- + sacrare to consecrate, sacer : to make sacred . ]
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God.
[Sacred

Consecration
Sanctification of something by setting it apart (usually with religious rites) as dedicated to God
The act by which a person or thing is separated from secular and profane use and dedicated to the service of God.
Psalm 51:17
Matthew 16:24
[Consecrate]  [Sanctify

Consubstantiation
The doctrine, proposed by Martin Luther, that the substance of the body and blood of Jesus coexists with the substance of the bread and wine in the Eucharist.
Belief held by certain Christians about the Eucharist. It holds that during the sacrament the Body of Christ enters the bread, and the Blood of Christ enters the wine, but they continue to be also bread and wine.

Note: This view, held by Luther himself, was called consubstantiation by non Lutheran writers in contradistinction to transsubstantiation, the Catholic view.
[Eucharist]  [Transubstantiation

Contrition
An expression of humility, sorrow or repentance for sin. "The LORD is near to those who have a broken heart, And saves such as have a contrite spirit" (Psa. 34:18).
Sorrow for and detestation of sin with a true purpose of amendment, arising from a love of God for His own perfection's (perfect contrition), or from some inferior motive, as fear of divine punishment (imperfect contrition).
[Penitent

Conversion
(from Latin, "to turn around"). Referring to salvation, this term speaks of the change a person undergoes when saved. (Acts 3:19)
Turning from evil to God. God converts (Acts 21:19) the unsaved into the saved, from the unregenerate to the regenerate. It is produced through the preaching of the gospel (Rom. 10:14; 1 Cor. 15:1-4) and results in repentance (Acts 26:20) and a new creation (2 Cor. 5:17). The fruits of conversion are listed in Gal. 5:22-23.
[Born Again]  [Convert(ed)]  [Fruit of the Holy Spirit]  [Repent, Repentance]  [Salvation

Convert(ed)
Changed, transformed - spiritually reborn or converted (Example: "A converted sinner")
Noting a specified type of person who has been converted from the religion, beliefs, or attitudes characteristic of that type: a converted Christian; a converted thief.
[Born Again]  [Conversion]  [Transformed

Conviction
The "pricking" of one's conscience by the Holy Spirit when one has done something that isn't right
The work of the Holy Spirit where a person is able to see himself as God sees him: guilty, defiled, and totally unable to save himself (John 16:8). Conviction of the Holy Spirit of an unbeliever reveals sinfulness and guilt and brings fear. Conviction of the Holy Spirit of the believer brings an awareness of sin and results in confession and cleansing. This conviction is produced by the Holy Spirit (John 16:8), the Gospel (Acts 2:37), the conscience (Rom. 2:15), and the Law (James 2:9). Conviction of our sins brings us to the cross. It shows us our need for forgiveness.
[Confession]  [Conscience]  [Forgive/Forgiveness]  [Holy Spirit]  [Sin, Sinner

Covenant
A legal promise between two people or groups. Some kinds of covenants apply equally to both sides like a marriage, or only one side like God's promises.
Means "to bind or unite". In its fullest form it is not simply a contract, but a self-giving "I am yours and you are mine" a family bond.(There is no Hebrew word for family; covenant was really the word). The word "testament" also means "covenant", so the Old and New Testaments of the Bible are also the Old and New Covenants.
[Abrahamic Covenant]  [Circumcise]  [New Covenant]  [Noah

Covered by the Blood
When one is a Christian, having accepted the sacrifice Jesus made for us (and, therefore, the blood that He shed), Satan no longer has authority over him. We say that Satan can't touch us because we're "covered by the blood."
That is, the "Blood of Jesus". The thought behind this expression is that when Satan accuses a believer before God, that believer can then plead their case before God based on their being washed clean of their sins by the death of Christ. This expression is also used more loosely in the sense of asking for some protection or relief from demonic attack on the basis of the death of Christ on their behalf, or referencing "the Blood" as a shorthand expression.
[Jesus]  [Sacrifice]  [Satan]  [Sin, Sinner

Creation
The act of bringing something into existence from nothing. God's act of creation, described in the Biblical book of Genesis, brought into existence the universe and all its component parts, including the earth and all living creatures on it.
God created, or made, the world and the entire universe; it is all his creation. The Bible says every-thing God made was very good.
Genesis 1-2
Psalm 65
Psalm 104
Revelation 4:9- 11
All creation is now hurt by the sin in the world. But one day God will make creation perfect
again.
Romans 8:18-25
[Adam and Eve]  [Eden]  [Evolution]  [Genesis]  [Imago Dei]  [Original Sin]  [Ussher's Chronology]  [Void]  [Watchmaker Argument

Creationism
The literal belief in the account of creation given in the Book of Genesis; "creationism denies the theory of evolution of species"
The literal belief in the account of creation given in the Book of Genesis, that the world was brought into existence directly by God, rather than through blind, naturalistic processes.
[Infusionism]  [Teleological Argument]  [Tradicianism

Creed
A statement of religious beliefs agreed by the church to be true. There are 2 main creeds in the Christian church: the Apostles' Creed and the Nicene Creed.
From the Latin for "I believe", the creed is a statement of the beliefs of the church. The three ecumenical creeds are:
(1) The Apostles' Creed
(2) The Nicene Creed
(3) The Athanasian Creed
[Apostles' Creed]  [Athanasian Creed]  [Ecumenical]  [Nicene Creed

Cross
The most important Christian symbol.

An instrument of punishment and execution, consisting of two beams of wood nailed together in the form of "X" or "T" or "+", on which criminals were hung and left exposed to die, often along roadways for passers-by to see. In Roman times, only slaves, peasants and the lowest types of criminals were crucified.
As relates to Christianity, it is the instrument of crucifixion. It is a single vertical stake with a cross member near or at the top by which a person is either nailed and/or tied with outstretched arms. Jesus was nailed on a cross, not a stake since in John 20:25, Thomas stated that he would not believe that Jesus had risen from the dead unless he saw "...in His hands the imprint of the nails..." A cross would require at least two nails, one for each outstretched hand.
[Crucify, Crucifixion]  [Easter]  [Sacrifice

Crucifix
Representation of the cross on which Jesus died
A religious symbol representing Jesus nailed to the cross. Most crucifixes lack accuracy because they portray a partly clothed man nailed through the palms. The Romans crucified people naked, with their wrists nailed (or their arms tied) to the crossbar.
[Crucify, Crucifixion]  [Easter

Crucify, Crucifixion
To nail or tie a person to a cross until that person died. A cross was made of rough beams of wood nailed together in a "+" shape. Jesus died by this method, which was usually used for criminals. Luke 22:66-23:56
1 Corinthians 1:18-25
Galatians 2:20
Crucify means to execute someone by nailing them to a cross with metal spikes. Their hands are stretched out on the crossbeam with spikes driven through their wrists or hands. Their feet or ankles are attached to a cross with a metal spike. The weight of the victim's body tends to force the air out of his lungs. To raise up to breathe, the victim has to put weight on the wounds, and use a lot of strength. The victim is nailed to the cross while the cross is on the ground, then the cross is raised up and dropped into a hole, thus jarring the wounds. Before crucifixion, the victim was usually whipped with a Roman cat of nine tails, which had bits of glass and metal tied to its ends. This caused chunks of flesh to be removed and open wounds to be placed against the raw wood of the cross. The victim was made to carry the heavy crossbeam of his cross from the place of judgement to the place of crucifixion, but often was physically unable after the scourging, so another person would be pressed into involuntary service to carry the cross for him. Roman crucifixion was generally done totally naked to maximise both shame and discomfort. Eventually, the pain, weakness, dehydration, and exhaustion of the muscles needed to breathe make breathing impossible, and the victim suffocates.
[Cross]  [Resurrection]  [Sacrifice]  [Simon of Cyrene]  [Substitutionary Death

Cult
Groups which are heretical in one or more significant respects and which frequently practice strong social control over their members.
From the Latin [cultus] meaning to cultivate, and by extension, any group or sect which cultivates, or 'promotes growth' through their beliefs to make proselytes. In modern Theological terms, the word is generally reserved for religious groups which (in contrast to classical Christianity, of having God's Word as their authority) blindly give authority to their leader. These leaders are often venerated, and manipulate and control the group through their charisma, deception, fear, and even perceived power. Anyone having a fanatical veneration of, or loyalty to, a human leader, animal, or thing.

Different from occult, which is openly satanic.
[Eisegesis]  [Occult]  [Sect

Curse
Wish harm upon; invoke evil upon; to swear
Has a number of meanings, all of them malevolent.

In its most basic meaning, a curse is a prayer asking that a god or similar spirit brings misfortune to someone; an imprecation or execration, the opposite of a blessing.

Thou shalt not curse the ruler of thy people. Exodus 22.

Bless and curse not. Romans 12.

Curse me this people, for they are too mighty for me. Numbers 22.
[Bless, Blessing